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(See references 99 through 102.) Allen and Bathurst show that installation damage has limited impact on the initial working stress performance of geosynthetic walls.
For most geosynthetics used as reinforcement (i.e., woven geotextiles and geogrids), their load-strain-time behavior is not significantly affected by installation damage at typical or even relatively high working strains for the levels of installation damage observed in full-scale walls. conducted a series of field installation tests and concluded that, in applications where only the tensile strength at relatively low elongations is relevant, the effects of moderate installation damage is very limited, and the factor Allen and Bathurst investigated the combined effect of polymeric creep and installation damage using a database of constant sustained load (creep) data for both undamaged and installation damaged geosynthetic specimens.) may be conservative and hence results in errors on the safe side for current ASD practice.
(MARV is commonly defined as the strength that is two standard deviations below the mean tensile strength). CDOT, for example, has adopted the following values: the allowable design strength is on the order of 10 to 24 percent of MARV for preapproved products and 5 percent of MARV for not preapproved products.
The loads at both ends of the geosynthetic material were measured.
Creep tests using sand as confining soil indicated that the geosynthetic material experienced stress relaxation.
There tests are conducted by applying uniaxial tensile forces directly to the geosynthetic reinforcement (in a confined or unconfined condition) without regard to the soil-geosynthetic interaction behavior.
It is important to point out that conducting uniaxial creep tests in the confinement of soil does not mean soil-geosynthetic interaction is accounted for.